Rules of understanding and interpretation of the agreement. It is specified that they have the same legal force in the EU as in the United Kingdom. The rules have direct effect, which means that, if they are precise and clear, they can be invoked directly by individuals before national courts. EU legal concepts must be interpreted in accordance with EU law and taking into account the practice of the Court of Justice of the European Union. The UK has started formal withdrawal negotiations by formally announcing to the European Council its intention to leave the EU. Holders of geographical indications protected in the European Union at the end of the transitional period have the right to use the geographical indication in the United Kingdom without further examination and enjoy „at least the same level of protection“ as under the existing EU regime. However, this only applies unless a future agreement between the EU and the UK enters into force and becomes applicable. The Protocol on Gibraltar shall apply until the end of the transitional period, with the exception of the provisions relating to citizens` rights, which shall also continue. The Protocol provides for the preparation for the application of the civil rights part of the VA and allows for the application of UNION legislation at Gibraltar airport if the United Kingdom and Spain reach an agreement on this point; justifies cooperation between Spain and the United Kingdom in the areas of taxation, environmental protection and fisheries, police and customs. The Memoranda of Understanding between the United Kingdom and Spain facilitate cooperation at operational level between the competent authorities of Gibraltar and Spain, in particular through the use of joint committees in the areas of citizens` rights, the environment, police, customs and tobacco. After an unprecedented vote on 4 December 2018, MPs decided that the UK government was not respecting Parliament because it refused to give Parliament the full legal advice it had received on the impact of its proposed withdrawal conditions.
 The central point of the opinion concerned the legal effect of the Backstop Agreement on Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the rest of the United Kingdom with regard to the customs border between the European Union and the United Kingdom and its impact on the Good Friday Agreement that led to the end of the unrest in Northern Ireland, and in particular on the security of the United Kingdom, to be able to leave the EU in practice, in accordance with the draft proposals. The agreement was revised as part of the Johnson Ministry`s renegotiation in 2019. The amendments adapt about 5% of the text.  On 17 October 2019, the UK and the EU approved a revised agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community, approved by heads of state and government at an extraordinary European Council, a legally binding document, provisions on the „divorce agreement“ between the EU and the UK and the transition period (withdrawal) ommen. . . .